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In technology we often have to deal with physical processes (think of the combustion of fuel, for example) and released forces. The engine specifications (cylinder capacity, compression ratio, valve timing, tangential forces) as well as environmental factors determine the torque delivered to the crankshaft. Measurements and calculations can be used to determine how a combustion process proceeds (indication diagram) and can be optimized to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.

Bore and Stroke Volume